Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Abraham Lincoln and the Gettysburg Address

Abraham Lincoln and the Gettysburg Address Abraham Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address is one of the most quoted speeches in American history. The  text is brief, just three paragraphs amounting to less than 300 words. It only took Lincoln a few minutes to read it, but his words resonate to the present day. It’s unclear how much time Lincoln spent writing the speech, but analysis by scholars over the years indicates  that Lincoln used extreme care. It was a heartfelt and precise message he very much wanted to deliver at a moment of national crisis. The dedication of a cemetery at the site of the Civil Wars most pivotal battle was a solemn event. And when Lincoln was invited to speak, he recognized that the moment required him to make a major statement. Lincoln Intended a Major Statement The Battle of Gettysburg had taken place in rural Pennsylvania for the first three days of July in 1863. Thousands of men, both Union and Confederate, had been killed. The magnitude of the battle stunned the nation. As the summer of 1863 turned into fall, the Civil War entered a fairly slow period with no major battles being fought. Lincoln, very concerned that the nation was growing weary of a long and very costly war, was thinking of making a public statement affirming the country’s need to continue fighting. Immediately following the Union victories at Gettysburg and Vicksburg in July, Lincoln had said the occasion called for a speech but he was not yet prepared to give one equal to the occasion. And even before the Battle of Gettysburg, famed newspaper editor, Horace Greeley had written to Lincoln’s secretary John Nicolay in late June 1863 to urge Lincoln to write a letter on the â€Å"causes of the war and the necessary conditions of peace.† Lincoln Accepted an Invitation to Speak at Gettysburg At that time, presidents did not often have the opportunity to give speeches. But the opportunity for Lincoln to express his thoughts on the war appeared in November. Thousands of Union dead at Gettysburg had been hastily buried after the battle months earlier and were finally being properly reburied. A ceremony was to be held to dedicate the new cemetery and Lincoln was invited to offer remarks. The main speaker at the ceremony was to be Edward Everett, a distinguished New Englander who had been a U.S. Senator, Secretary of State, and president of Harvard College as well as a professor of Greek. Everett, who was famed for his orations, would talk at length about the great battle the previous summer. Lincoln’s remarks were always intended to be far briefer. His role would be to provide a proper and elegant closing to the ceremony. How the Speech Was Written Lincoln approached the task of writing the speech seriously. But unlike his speech at Cooper Union nearly four years earlier, he did not need to undertake extensive research. His thoughts about how the war was being fought for a just cause had already been set firmly in his mind. A persistent myth is that Lincoln wrote the speech on the back of an envelope while riding the train to Gettysburg, as he didn’t think the speech was anything serious. The opposite is true. A draft of the speech had been written by Lincoln in the White House. And it’s known that he also refined the speech the night before he delivered it, at the house where he spent the night in Gettysburg. Lincoln put considerable care into what he was about to say. November 19, 1863, the Day of the Gettysburg Address Another common myth about the ceremony at Gettysburg is that Lincoln was only invited as an afterthought and that the brief address he gave was nearly overlooked at the time. In fact, Lincoln’s involvement was always considered a vital part of the program, and the letter inviting him to participate makes that evident. The official invitation explained to Lincoln that the idea was always to have a featured orator and that it would be meaningful for the chief executive to then offer remarks. David Willis, a local attorney who was organizing the event, wrote: It is the desire that, after the Oration, you, as Chief Executive of the Nation, formally set apart these grounds to their Sacred use by a few appropriate remarks. It will be a source of great gratification to the many widows and orphans that have been made almost friendless by the Great Battle here, to have you here personally; and it will kindle anew in the breasts of the Comrades of these brave dead, who are now in the tented field or nobly meeting the foe in the front, a confidence that they who sleep in death on the Battle Field are not forgotten by those highest in Authority; and they will feel that, should their fate be the same, their remains will not be uncared for. The program that day began with a procession from the town of Gettysburg to the site of the new cemetery. Abraham Lincoln, in a new black suit, white gloves, and stovepipe hat, rode a horse in the procession, which also contained four military bands and other dignitaries on horseback. During the ceremony, Edward Everett spoke for two hours, delivering a detailed account of the great battle which had been fought on the ground four months earlier. Crowds at that time expected long orations, and Everett’s was well received. As Lincoln rose to give his address, the crowd listened intently. Some accounts describe the crowd applauding at points in the speech, so it seems that it was well-received. The brevity of the speech may have surprised some, but it seems that those who heard the speech realized they had witnessed something important. Newspapers carried accounts of the speech and it began to be praised throughout the north. Edward Everett arranged for his oration and Lincoln’s speech to be published in early 1864 as a book (which also included other material related to the ceremony on November 19, 1863). What Was the Purpose of the Gettysburg Address? In the famous opening words, Four score and seven years ago, Lincoln does not refer to the United States Constitution, but to the Declaration of Independence. That is important, as Lincoln was invoking Jeffersons phrase that all men are created equal as being central to the American government. In Lincolns view, the Constitution was an imperfect and always evolving document. And it had, in its original form, established the legality of slavery. By invoking the earlier document, the Declaration of Independence, Lincoln was able to make his argument about equality, and the purpose of the war being a new birth of freedom. Legacy of the Gettysburg Address The text of the Gettysburg address was widely circulated following the event at Gettysburg, and with Lincolns assassination less than a year and a half later, Lincolns words began to assume iconic status. It has never fallen out of favor and has been reprinted countless times. When President-elect Barack Obama spoke on election night, November 4, 2008, he quoted from the Gettysburg Address. And a phrase from the speech, A New Birth of Freedom, was adopted as the theme of his inaugural celebrations in January 2009. Of the People, By the People, and For the People Lincolns lines at the conclusion, that government of the people, by the people, and for the people, shall not perish from the Earth has been extensively quoted and cited as the essence of the American system of government. Sources Everett, Edward. Address of Hon. Edward Everett, at the Consecration of the National Cemetery at Gettysburg, 19Th November, 1863: With the Dedicatory Speech of ... by an Account of the Origin of the Under. Abraham Lincoln, Paperback, Ulan Press, August 31, 2012. Santoro, Nicholas J. Malvern Hill, Run Up To Gettysburg: The Tragic Struggle. Paperback, iUniverse, July 23, 2014. Willis, David. Gettysburg Address: The Formal Invitation. Library of Congress, November 2, 1863.

Monday, March 2, 2020

10 Basic Chemistry Facts You Should Know

10 Basic Chemistry Facts You Should Know There are certain facts that every chemistry buff should know - how many of these fun and interesting facts do you already have stored in your brain? Test Your Knowledge With These 10 Chemistry Facts Chemistry is the study of matter and energy and the interactions between them. It is a physical science that is closely related to physics, which often shares the same definition.Chemistry traces its roots back to the ancient study of alchemy. Chemistry and alchemy are separate now, though alchemy still is practiced today.All matter is made up of the chemical elements, which are distinguished from each other by the numbers of protons they possess.The chemical elements are organized in order of increasing atomic number into the periodic table. The first element in the periodic table is hydrogen.Each element in the periodic table has a one or two-letter symbol. The only letter in the English alphabet not used on the periodic table is J. The letter q only appears in the symbol for the placeholder name for element 114, ununquadium, which has the symbol Uuq. When element 114 is officially discovered, it will be given a new name.At room temperature, there are only two liquid elements. Thes e are bromine and mercury. The IUPAC name for water, H2O, is dihydrogen monoxide.Most elements are metals and most metals are silver-colored or gray. The only non-silver metals are gold and copper.The discoverer of an element may give it a name. There are elements named for people (Mendelevium, Einsteinium), places (Californium, Americium) and other things.Although you may consider gold to be rare, there is enough gold in the Earths crust to cover the land surface of the planet knee-deep.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Fashion and Muslim Traditional Dress Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Fashion and Muslim Traditional Dress - Essay Example The essay "Fashion and Muslim Traditional Dress" discovers the fashion in the context of Muslim Traditions. Muslim women are trying to be saved by both external and internal cultures. Western society seeks to liberate Muslim women from the shackles of oppression and bring them into a world where they have opportunities, but would be vulnerable without the protections offered in Muslim culture. Muslim cultures are attempting to shield women from Western values that objectify the body and strip from them their protections that define their status in Muslim society. Clothing is an integral part of how women are defined by both societies. Western societies see ‘the veil’ as a symbol of oppression while a Muslim woman who is inappropriately dressed loses respect and status within her community. The following paper will examine the position of Muslim female dress in modern contexts. The development of fashion that is acceptable outside of the Muslim community comes into confli ct with the purpose of dress within that community. Through innovative and creative design, fashion for Muslim women is becoming modernized while retaining its modest purpose. In defining female dress for modern contexts, the nature of fashion and Muslim tradition comes together to place women of Muslim into relationship with modern ideals while retaining elements of tradition that are important for Muslim identity. While female Muslim dress has a specific purpose as a representation of faith and adherence to tradition and law.

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Managing for the future Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Managing for the future - Essay Example This fact can be analyzed by looking at the magazines who printed its success. "FT Global 500" by Financial Times, "The World's 2000 Biggest Public Companies" by Forbes magazine and by the Dow Jones Sustainability Indexes (Developing Telecoms | China Mobile | Sponsors Directory, 2012). According to its official website, Limited China Mobile Limited(2012), it has more than 34 subsidiaries like China Mobile Communication Company Limited (â€Å"CMC") , ZONG, China Mobile Group Guangdong Company Limited ("Guangdong Mobile"), Jiangsu Mobile and Hong Kong Mobile etc. The board of directors of China Mobile Ltd consists of Executive Directors and Independent Non-Executive Directors. The executive directors are seven in number whereas the Independent Non-Executive Directors are three in number (China Mobile Limited - About China Mobile > Board of Directors, 2012). 1.1 Milestones from 2006-2012 2006 marks some of the most important changes which came in the company. China Mobile Limited was f ormerly named as China Mobile (Hong Kong) Limited. The change in the company’s name came in the year 2006. This year also marks the privatization of China Resources Peoples Telephone Company Ltd. The privatization benefitted the company allot and gave a boost to its annual profits. In 2006, News Corp. and STAR Group Ltd. formed wireless media tactical association with China Mobile Ltd (China Mobile Limited - About China Mobile > Milestones, 2012). According to the company’s official website the year 2009 marks a share subscription agreement with the company Far EasTone. This increased the annual company profit (China Mobile Limited - About China Mobile > Milestones, 2012). Guangdong Mobile and SPD bank signed a share subscription agreement in the year 2010. This agreement increased the interest of both the subsidiaries of the company. It further strengthened the company’s e-commerce and mobile finance businesses (China Mobile Limited - About China Mobile > Miles tones, 2012). 2012 marks a lot of success news for the company. The company got a lot of awards for its performance and expansion. "Grand Award Winners -- Investor Relations" and three "iNova Awards 2012" serve as the most honorable achievements of the company. Moreover, the company is nominated for the Top favorite China Corporate Brand voted by China Consumer" and it was included in the Financial Times magazine again. It is the company which keeps it head high by coming up for the Millward Brown and Financial Times' "BRANDZâ„ ¢ Top 100" list for the seventh year uninterruptedly (China Mobile Limited - Media Centre > News Highlights, 2012). 1.2 What about the future? From the year 2006-2012, the company has been the most successful company in the wireless mobile services business. It has seen many success stories and good times. It is important for the company to maintain its reputation and image for the future as well. Be it Apple Inc. or Samsung, all the companies have been at the top because they keep on inventing new things for the future. They try to plan for the future and implement the strategies accordingly. China Mobile Limited has a lot of competition in the age of wireless technology. To remain the best it has to innovate and plan for its future. A company’s success lies in the people who work for it. The company’s biggest assets are people (Zolezzi, 2004. pp.41). 1.3 Management, Marketing and Understanding the Key Stakeholders Marketing is a tool to sell the product or service. It

Saturday, January 25, 2020

Free College Essays - Characters of The Parable :: Parable Essays

Characters of The Parable In The Parable several characters are presented to the reader.   Each one has their own   behavioral characteristics which one may or my not approve of.   The two characters whose behaviors I most approve of are Lee Pai and Hernando.   The characters whose behaviors I do not approve of are Sven and John.   There are several reasons why I approve of the behaviors of Lee Pai and Hernando and do not approve of   the behaviors of Sven and John.   All of   these reasons I have based on my interpretation of the story, The Parable.     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The Parable is a story about Rosemary, a young woman   who is betrothed to a man named Hernando.   Rosemary is supposed to meet Hernando for there up coming wedding but she is faced with a dilemma.   In order for her to get to her wedding she has to cross a very deep and wide river that is full of crocodiles.   Rosemary is clueless on how she is to get across   this river, so she decides to turn to people, she knows, for help.   The first person she turns to is Sven for he owns a boat.   Sven listens to Rosemary's   problem and tells her he will take her across the river if   she spends the night with him.   Rosemary, surprised and shocked at hearing such an offer, declines and turns to another acquaintance, Lee Pai, for help.   Lee Pai tells Rosemary he is sorry but he can't help her.   Not knowing what else she can do, Rosemary goes back to Sven for help.   She spends the night with him and the next day he takes her across the river.   Rosemary and Hernando are then together at last.   The evening before their wedding, Rosemary feels the need to tell   Hernando what she had to do to get across the river.   When she tells Hernando, he is very hurt and upset.   He calls the wedding off and "banishes Rosemary as a soiled woman" (The Parable).   Rosemary is very distraught over this and turns to John (an acquaintance) for a little comfort.   After hearing her story John says to Rosemary that even though he does not love her, he will marry her.   With this, the story comes to an end.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   There are   two characters in the story, The Parable, that   I approve of .   These two characters are Lee Pai and Hernando.

Thursday, January 16, 2020

Book Review: Black Feminist Thought (Patricia Hill Collins)

Alexandra Bobet HIST 3119 Spring 2013 Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment (review) Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment. Ed. By Patricia Hill Collins. (New York: Routledge, 2000. ii, 336 pp. Cloth, $128. 28, ISBN 0-415-92483-9. Paper, $26. 21, 0-415-92484-7. ) Patricia Hill Collins’s work, Black Feminist Thought seeks to center Black Women into intersectionalist thought, addressing the power struggles that face them not only due to their race but also to the gender.Masculine rhetoric and powerful male leaders such as Huey P. Newton and Eldridge Cleaver have overshadowed Black Women’s stories, both in and out of the Civil Right Rights/Black Power Era. It is an analysis that defines Black Feminist Thought, instead of recycling former White Feminist philosophies and providing interpretations of them. However, she does integrate consciousness raising into the body of work, drawing in from her personal experiences while analyzing the texts of women such as Alice Walker and bell hooks.The second edition of Black Feminist Thought differs from the first in both the complexity and the depth of oppression and empowerment, spanning into a transnational level. Collins breaks down her novel into three parts. Part I: The Social Construction of Feminist Thought, Part II: Core Themes in Black Feminist Thought, and Part III: Black Feminism, Knowledge, and Power. Bobet 2 Part I: The Social Construction of Feminist Thought covers the history of oppression of black women from various sectors.White feminism has failed women which use of essentialist philosophy, which Collins uses in the relationship between Rebecca Felton and Ida B Wells, the former praised by White feminists even though she was an advocate of lynching. Collins touches upon Black leadership and how it has addressed gender, in particular the case of Elaine Brown and the Black Panther Party of Oakland. Among Afric an-American female scholars there has been a concern in the masculinist bias of Black political and social thought.With these mediums of oppression, her first theory, referred to as the Matrix of Domination is brought up. Previous models of oppression were considered additive, or hierarchal, meaning that they must be ranked. Collins uses the experiences of black women to explain that all these modes of oppression, gender, race and class are interlocking and equally important when viewing domination. This bleeds mores into Part II, but the essentials are discussed in this section. While there is validity in this matrix, Collins’s approach is from a group level, and it does not cover how the individual may use the matrix.While it is true that all these modes of oppression are at play, it would be more beneficial for the individual to place a value on these modes. For one individual, race may be more of a factor than gender, for another individual it may differ, and so on. Anoth er critique of the matrix of oppression is how it does not address, sexual orientation, ableism, and ethnicity, among others. Part II: Core Themes in Black Feminist Thought tackles five themes: 1) a legacy of struggle, 2) treatment of the interlocking nature of race, class, and gender, 3) Bobet 3 eplacement of stereotyped images of black womanhood with those that are self defined, 4) black women’s activism, and 5) sensitivity to black sexual politics. The first three themes correlate to black motherhood and living in a binary environment, one in which black people are the oppressed and white people are the oppressors. Images of black womanhood have been terribly distorted to show stereotypes such as the unwed teenage mother and the welfare mother.Black women’s activism, one of the last core themes of the text, has been more of a desire for group survival and cohesion than any political motives, as seen with the story of Sara Brooks and her job as a domestic worker. Her job speaks larger volumes to political activism and the nature of oppression than many political texts, according to Collins. This outlook parallels many of bell hooks’s essays, especially â€Å"Theory As A Liberatory Practice. † This essay addresses the powers of the Sara Brookses of the world and how their actions complement the discourse that is being forged.Part III: Black Feminism, Knowledge, and Power comprises of the edits not found in the first edition. Drawing from experiences from Senegalese, American, and British Black feminists, the matrix of race, gender, and class oppressions are still relevant to all nations, despite diversity. Angela Davis is frequently cited as a champion of this transnational empowerment She encourages Black Women of privilege to not â€Å"ignore the straits of our sisters who are acquainted with the immediacy of oppression in a way many of us are not,† fueling Collins’s core theme of a type of feminism rooted in sister hood and familial ties.Analysis of oppression from a nationalistic point of view is represented, drawing further from her original gender/race/class matrix. Bobet 4 To conclude, Black Feminist Thought is thorough and crucial text because of how vigilantly it attempts (and successfully so) to not be another spin on White feminism. Using the methodological approach of historical materialism, it addresses the concerns that Black women have on the heels of the Civil Rights and Black Power movements.Concerns with the narrative are that while it does explain the roots of consciousness raising and feminist thought in Black Power movements, the overwhelming amount of text is based on the interpretations of writers such as Alice Walker, bell hooks, and Audre Lorde, much less on intellectuals. Collins touches upon the efforts of Elaine Brown, Angela Davis, and also provides a personal account of Francis Beale and her experience with racism in SNCC. Beale’s experiences with sexism, for example influenced her essay, â€Å"Black Women’s Manifesto; Double Jeopardy: To Be Black and A Woman. I found Collins’s assertion of what is a feminist to be inclusionary and not in any way rejecting masculinity, but more how the masculine rhetoric that has oppressed women should be rejected. Black feminist rhetoric created in backlash has centered on community awareness, and a sense of identity through a group. While Collins alludes to capitalism as also being a contributing factor in the oppression of Black women, there was not as much concrete evidence to support that as much as there was racism and sexism. Patricia Hill Collins forms a text that finally draws a map into the complexity of oppression and empowerment.

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

The Current Office Of President Of The United States

The Intended Presidency The current office of president of the United States of America is not exactly what the Founding Fathers intended. This paper addresses the intentions of what the founders of America wanted, as well as the authority and duties given to the presidency, which are clearly defined in The Federalist Papers, as well as the Constitution of the United States. The Federalist Papers were written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and John Jay. While writing under the pseudonym Publius, these three men attempted to convince and urge its readers, especially those in New York, to ratify the Constitution of the United States. The founders realized that the best way to promote liberty within America was to separate the political authority into three independent powers. These three powers of authority maintain a system of checks and balance and consist of the legislative, judicial and executive branches. The legislative branch makes the laws, the judicial branch interprets and applies the laws, and the executive branch enforces and carries out the laws. When it came to the powers of the executive, the people of America were reluctant and fearful because they had recently fought to rid themselves of monarchy. In Federalist No. 67, Hamilton attempts to ease their minds and he defends the office of president. He compares the office to being more like the governor of New York rather than the king of Great Britain. Hamilton also addresses the misconception overShow MoreRelatedVice President Of The United States1315 Words   |  6 PagesJohn Adams once stated, â€Å"I am vice president. In this I am nothing, but i may be everything.† From its conception, the Vice President of the United States was a position of little relevance. However, over the course of the nation’s history, the vice presidency evolved from a position of irrelevance to one of power. 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